Abstract Article


Formulation and evaluation of benzoyl peroxide incorporated invasomal vesicles

Pratibha Pancholi , Pradeep Chauhan ,

ONLINE ISSN : 2456-8244



The objective of the current investigation was to develop invasomes loaded with benzoyl peroxide to improve the stability of benzoyl peroxide as well as to control the release of the same from the formulation for a longer duration. The invasomes were prepared by thin layer hydration method using 1:10 ratio of drug to lecithin, employing varying concentrations of eucalyptus oil and peppermint oil (terpenes). The entrapment efficiency, particle size and percent drug release from the invasomes was evaluated. The average particle size of the formulations ranged from 153.4 to 315.4 nm. The size was found to decrease with the increasing concentration of the terpene. The zeta potential of the invasomal formulations -27 mV to -49 mV. The drug entrapment was found to be between 64.15 to 86.35 %. All the formulations could release benzoyl peroxide for upto 12 hours in the in vitro experiments. The formulation F3 was considered the most efficient formulation with smallest particle size (153.4 nm), a zeta potential of -31.6 mV, entrapment efficiency of 82.24 % and a drug release of 99.88 % at the end of the 12th hour.


Invasome, benzoyl peroxide, permeation, lecithin, release, acne



  1. https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB09096 assessed on 18/12/2022
  2. Lasic DD. Liposomes: From Physics to Applications. Elsevier: New York, Chap.    1-3; 1993.
  3. Janoff AS. Liposomes: Rational Design. Marcel Dekker, New York, Chap. 1; 1998.
  4. Berestein GL, Fuller IJ. Liposomes in the therapy of infectious diseases and cancer. New York Press; 1989.
  5. Babaie S, Taghvimi A, Charkhpour M, Zarebkohan A, Keyhanvar P, Hamishehkar H. Optimization of Influential Variables in the Development of Buprenorphine and Bupivacaine Loaded Invasome for Dermal Delivery. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2021; 11(3): 522-529.
  6. Tawfik MA, Tadros MI, Mohamed MI, El-Helaly SN. Low-Frequency versus High-Frequency Ultrasound-Mediated Transdermal Delivery of Agomelatine-Loaded Invasomes: Development, Optimization and in-vivo Pharmacokinetic Assessment. International Journal of Nanomedicine 2020; 15: 8893-8910.
  7. Ammar HO, Tadros MI, Salama NM, Ghoneim AM. Ethosome-Derived Invasomes as a Potential Transdermal Delivery System for Vardenafil Hydrochloride: Development, Optimization and Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Adults and Geriatrics. Int J Nanomed 2020; 15: 5671-5685
  8. Targhotra M, Gupta M. Development and characterization of effective topical formulation for adapalene loaded invasomes for acne management. Indian J Pham Sci Res 2020; 10(1): 1-8
  9. Vidya K, Lakshmi PK. Cytotoxic effect of transdermal invasomal anastrozole gel on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2019; 9(3): 50-58.
  10. Qadri GA, Ahad A, Aqil M, Imam SS, Ali S. Invasomes of isradipine for enhanced transdermal delivery against hypertension: formulation, characterization, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. Artificial cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology 2017; 45(1): 139-145.
  11. Kumar R, Jain A. Formulation and evaluation of salicylic acid loaded ethosomes. Journal of Pharmacology and Biomedicine. 2021; 5(3): 334-341.
  12. Shah SM, Ashtikar M, Jain AS, Makhija DT, Nikam Y, Gude RP, et al. LeciPlex, invasomes, and liposomes: a skin penetration study. International Journal of Pharmacy 2015; 490(1–2): 391–403.
  13. Ruckmani K, Jayakar B, Ghosal SK. Nonionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) of cytarabine hydrochloride for effective treatment of leukemias: encapsulation, storage, and in vitro release. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 2000; 26(2): 217–222.
  14. Yang SC, Lu LF, Cai Y, Zhu JB, Liang BW, Yang CZ. Body distribution in mice of intravenously injected camptothecin solid lipid nanoparticles and targeting effect on brain. Journal of Controlled Release 1999; 59(3): 299–307.
  15. Pauli A. Relationship between lipophilicity and toxicity of essential oils. International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics 2008; 2: 60-68.