Abstract Article


Formulation and evaluation of polyherbal capsules for the management of gout

Azmi Abu Amama Jalis Ahmed, G.K.Pandey, B.K.Dubey

ONLINE ISSN : 2456-8244



Trigonella foenum-graecum (TF), Zingiber officinale (ZO) and Piper nigrum (PN) were extracted using ethanol and incorporated in to liposomes. These liposomes were formulated as capsule dosage form for the management of gout. The extraction yield for TF, ZO and PN were found to be 38.9 41.6 and 21.6% respectively respectively. The total phenolic content in TF, ZO and PN extracts were found to be 31.3 ± 1.367, 11.7 ± 2.896 and 8.7 ± 0.894 GAE mg/100g whereas it was found to be 49.8 ± 0.735, 58.1 ± 1.721 and 69.06 ± 1.823 GAE mg/100g for 1:1:1, 1:2:1 and 2:1:1 mixture ratio of CQ and ZO respectively. The particle size of the liposomes was found to decrease with an increase in sonication time but the sonication time did not affect the total phenolic content of the liposomes. The particle size of the liposome formulated using 5 min sonication time was considered optimum and was found to be 2.38 ± 0.0929 µm. The phenolic content in the liposomes was in accordance with the extract mixture incorporated into the liposome with LF3 exhibiting the highest phenolics. The liposomes were evaluated for stability for a period of 3 months at storage temperature of 4° and 40°C. The liposomes were stable at both the temperature conditions and the particle size of the liposomes did not change considerably over a period of three months. The weight variation of polyherbal liposome filled capsules was between 3.5-4.1% whereas the disintegration time was found to be between 3.2 to 3.7 min.


Polyherbal, liposomes, gout, stability, phenolics, prefill parameters



1. Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM. Pathogenesis of gout. Annals of Internal Medicine 2005; 143(7): 499-516. 2. Grosser T, Smyth EM, FitzGerald GA. Pharmacotherapy of inflammation, fever, pain and gout. In: Goodman and Gilman’s The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 13th ed. McGraw Hill Education , New York, 2016; pp 685-709 3. Ehrlich SD. Herbal medicine. 2011. [Last accessed on 2019 November 1]. Available from: http://www.umm.edu/health/medical /altmed/treatment/herbal-medicine . 4. What is Ayurveda. 2008. [Last accessed on 2019 November 1]. Available from: http://www.ashtangayurveda.com/pag es/What-is-Ayurveda.asp . 5. Oreagba IA, Oshikoya KA, Amachree M. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011; 11: 117. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472- 6882/11/117 6. Kamboj VP. Herbal medicine. Current Science 2000; 78: 35–51. 7. Yoganarsimhan SN. Medicinal plants of India. Cyber Media Bangalore 2, 2000; 2:136– 137. 8. Mishra G, Srivastava S, Nagori BP. Pharmacological and therapeutic activity of Cissus quadrangularis: An overview. International Journal of PharmTech Research 2010; 2(2):1298-1310. 9. Goyal S, Gupta N, Chatterjee S. Investigating therapeutic potential of Trigonella foenum- graecum L. as our defense mechanism against several human diseases. Journal of Toxicology 2016; http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1250387 10. Bang JS, Oh DH, Choi HM, Sur B-J, Lim S-J, Kim JY, Yang H-I Yoo MC, Hahm D-H, Kim KS. Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of piperine in human interleukin 1β- stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in rat arthritis models. Arthritis Research and Therapy 2009; 11: R46. doi:10.1186/ar2662 11. Sahira Banu K, Cathrine L. General Techniques Involved in Phytochemical Analysis. International Journal of Advances Research in Chemical Sciences 2015; 2(4): 25- 32 12. Chanthasri W, Puangkeaw N, Kunworarath N, Jaisamut P, Limsuwan S, Maneenoon K, Choochana P, Chusri S. Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of 20 polyherbal remedies used as tonics by folk healers in Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces, Thailand. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018; 18:73. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2131-y 13. Armann C, Roding J, Ghyczy M, Pratzel HG. Liposomes from soya phospholipids as percutaneous drug carriers. Arzneim-Forsch/ Drug Research 1990; 40: 1365-1368 14. Jain S, Kale DP, Swami R, Katiyar SS. Codelivery of benzoyl peroxide & adapalene using modified liposomal gel for improved acne therapy. Nanomedicine 2018; 13(12): 1481-1493 15. Shanmuga PS, Muthusamy P, Vadivu R, Radha R, Vijaya Bharathi R, Kumudhaveni. Development of polyherbal haematinic capsules and its preformulation studies. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advance Studies 2017; 4(3): 192-195 16. Jain CP, Naruka PS. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of valsartan. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2009; 1(1): 219- 226 17. Prameela AR, Archana N, Siva PT, Mohan PV, Sudheer MK, Bala CK. Formulation and evaluation of orodispersible metformin tablets. International Journal of Applied Pharmacy 2010; 2(3): 15-21. 18. Dag D, Oztop MH. Formation and Characterization of Green Tea Extract Loaded Liposomes. Journal of Food Science 2017; doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13615